Polyphenolic compounds in the loss of body fat
Palavras-chave:Photochemicals, Obesity, Brown adipose tissue, Thermogenesis
Obesity is a result of energy imbalance caused by excess caloric intake in relation to energy demand. Metabolic functions and fat behavior led to the classification of adipose tissue deposits into three types, white, brown and beige. White adipose tissue (BAT) and brown adipose tissue (WAT) have distinct functions, expending fat on heat production and storing fat as an energy source, respectively. However, brown adipocytes can appear in WAT by a process called WAT darkening, forming the beige adipose tissue. Research suggests that polyphenols play a vital role in preventing and managing obesity and its comorbidities. In this context, we aimed to perform a literature review on the use of the main antiobesity polyphenols as well as the mechanisms by which they perform effects. The main antiobesity polyphenols are catechins, resveratrol, quercetin, berberine, curcumin, thymol, chrysin, magnolol, honokiol, capsaicin and capsainoids. And the mechanisms of its effects are linked to gene transcription (PGC-1Î±, PRDM16 and UPC1) for the modification of WAT in beige adipose tissue that resembles morphophysiological with BAT, favoring fat burning by Î²-oxidation of fatty acids, translating into potential use for reduction and prevention of body fat accumulation. Therefore, the action of these polyphenols for the loss and reduction in body fat accumulation is strongly evidenced. Future studies should be directed to the use of polyphenols in humans, so that they can stipulate adequate doses for antiobesity use.
ALAPPAT L, AWAD AB. Curcumin and obesity: evidence and mechanisms. Nutr Ver 2010; 68 (12): 729â€“38.
ALBERDI G, MACARULLA MT, PORTILLO MP, RODRIGUEZ VM. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction. J Physiol Biochem 2014; 70: 639â€“46.
ALI BH, ADHAM SA, AL ZA'ABI M, WALY MI, YASIN J, NEMMAR A, et al. Ameliorative effect of chrysin on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease in rats. PLoS One 2015;10: e 0125285.
AMIOT MJ, RIVA C, VINET A. Effects of dietary polyphenols on metabolic syndrome features in humans: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2016; 17: 573â€“86.
ANDRADE JM, FRADE AC, GUIMARAES JB, FREITAS KM, LOPES MT, GUIMARAES AL, et al. Resveratrol increases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis markers by increasing SIRT1 and energy expenditure and decreasing fat accumulation in adipose tissue of mice fed a standard diet. Eur J Nutr 2014; 53: 1503â€“10.
ANANDHI R, ANNADURAI T, ANITHA TS, MURALIDHARAN AR, NAJMUNNISHA K, NACHIAPPAN V, et al. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative effects of na extract of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, and its major constituent, chrysin, in Triton WR-1339-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. J Physiol Biochem 2013; 69: 313â€“23.
ARORA S, BHARDWAJ A, SRIVASTAVA SK, SINGH S, MCCLELLAN S, WANG B, et al. Honokiol arrests cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and potentiates the cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer cells. PLoS One 2011; 6: e 21573.
AZHAR Y, PARMAR A, MILLER CN, SAMUELS JS, RAYALAM S. Phytochemicals as novel agents for the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016; 13:89.
BASCH E, ULBRICHT C, HAMMERNESS P, BEVINS A, SOLLARS D. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), thymol. J Herb Pharmacother 2004; 4: 49â€“67.
BASKARAN P, KRISHNAN V, REN J, THYAGARAJAN B. Capsaicin induces browning of white adipose tissue and counters obesity by activating TRPV1 channel dependent mechanisms. Br J Pharmacol 2016; 173: 2369â€“89.
BASU A, SANCHEZ K, LEYVA MJ, WU M, BETTS NM, ASTON CE, et al. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr 2010; 29: 31â€“40.
BAUR JA, PEARSON KJ, PRICE NL, JAMIESON HA, LERIN C, KALRA A, et al. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 2006; 444: 337â€“42.
BAUTERS D, COBBAUT M, GEYS L, VAN LINT J, HEMMERYCKX B, LIJNEN HR. Loss of ADAMTS5 enhances brown adipose tissue mass and promotes browning of white adipose tissue via CREB signaling. Mol Metab 2017; 6:715â€“24.
BHATT JK, THOMAS S, NANJAN MJ. Resveratrol supplementation improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res 2012; 32: 537â€“41.
BISHNOI M, KONDEPUDI KK, Gupta A, Karmase A, Boparai RK. Expression of multiple transient receptor potential channel genes in murine 3T3-L1 cell lines and adipose tissue. Pharmacol Rep 2013; 65 (3): 751â€“5.
CAREY AL, FORMOSA MF, VAN EVERY B, BERTOVIC D, EIKELIS N, LAMBERT GW, et al. Ephedrine activates brown adipose tissue in lean but not obese humans. Diabetologia 2013; 56 (1): 147 55.
CANTO C, GERHART-HINES Z, FEIGE JN, LAGOUGE M, NORIEGA L, MILNE JC, et al. AMPK regulates energy expenditure by modulating NAD+ metabolism and SIRT1 activity. Nature 2009;458 (7241): 1056â€“60.
CHERNIACK EP. Polyphenols: planting the seeds of treatment for the metabolic syndrome. Nutrition 2011; 27: 617â€“23.
CHO JH, JEON YJ, PARK SM, SHIN JC, LEE TH, JUNG S, et al. Multifunctional effects of honokiol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drug in human oral squamous cancer cells and xenograft. Biomaterials 2015; 53: 274â€“84.
CHOO JJ. Green tea reduces body fat accretion caused by high-fat diet in rats through beta-adrenoceptor activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. J Nutr Biochem 2003; 14: 671â€“6.
CHOI JH, KIM SW, YU R, YUN JW. Monoterpene phenolic compound thymol promotes browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Eur J Nutr 2017; 56 (7): 2329â€“41.
CHOI JH, YUN JW. Chrysin induces brown fat-like phenotype and enhances lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nutrition 2016;32 (9): 1002â€“10.
CHOI SS, CHA BY, IIDA K, SATO M, LEE YS, TERUYA T, et al. Honokiol enhances adipocyte differentiation by potentiating insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Nat Med 2011; 65 (3-4): 424â€“30.
CHONDRONIKOLA M, VOLPI E, BORSHEIM E, PORTER C, ANNAMALAI P, ENERBACK S, et al. Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes 2014; 63: 4089â€“99.
CHU DT, GAWRONSKA-KOZAK B. Brown and brite adipocytes: same function, but different origin and response. Biochimie 2017; 138: 102â€“5.
DEL RIO D, STEWART AJ, MULLEN W, BURNS J, LEAN ME, BRIGHENTI F, et al. HPLC-MSn analysis of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids in green and black tea. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52: 2807â€“15.
DEL RIO D, RODRIGUEZ-MATEOS A, SPENCER JP, TOGNOLINI M, BORGES G, CROZIER A. Dietary (poly)phenolics in human health: structures, bioavailability, and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases. Antioxid Redox Signal 2013; 18: 1818â€“92.
DI PIERRO F, BRESSAN A, RANALDI D, RAPACIOLI G, GIACOMELLI L, BERTUCCIOLI A. Potential role of bioavailable curcumin in weight loss and omental adipose tissue decrease: preliminary data of a randomized, controlled trial in overweight people with metabolic syndrome. Preliminary study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19: 4195â€“202.
DHANESHWAR S, PATEL V, PATIL D, MEENA G. Studies on synthesis, stability, release and pharmacodynamic profile of a novel diacerein-thymol prodrug. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2013; 23: 55â€“61.
DE ROSA S, DE STEFANO S. Chrysin 7-gentiobioside from the flowers of spartium junceum. Phytochemistry 1983; 22: 2323â€“4.
DONG J, ZHANG X, ZHANG L, BIAN HX, XU N, BAO B, et al. Quercetin reduces obesityassociated ATM infiltration and inflammation in mice: a mechanism including AMPKÎ±1/SIRT1. J Lipid Res 2014; 55 (3): 363â€“74.
DULLOO AG, DURET C, ROHRER D, GIRARDIER L, MENSI N, FATHI M, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 1040â€“5.
DURING MJ, LIU X, HUANG W, MAGEE D, SLATER A, MCMURPHY T, et al. Adipose VEGF links the white-to-brown fat switch with environmental, genetic, and pharmacological stimuli in male mice. Endocrinology 2015; 156: 2059â€“73.
FALCONE P, SPERANZA B, DEL NOBILE MA, CORBO MR, SINIGAGLIA M. A study on the antimicrobial activity of thymol intended as a natural preservative. J Food Prot 2005; 68: 1664â€“70.
FISHER FM, KLEINER S, DOURIS N, FOX EC, MEPANI RJ, VERDEGUER F, et al. FGF21 regulates PGC-1Î± and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis. Genes Dev 2012; 26:271â€“81.
FRIED LE, ARBISER JL. HONOKIOL, a multifunctional antiangiogenic and antitumor agent. Antioxid Redox Signal 2009; 11:1139â€“48.
FRONTINI A, CINTI S. Distribution and development of brown adipocytes in the murine and human adipose organ. Cell 2010; 11:253â€“6.
FUKUI Y, MASUI S, OSADA S, UMESONO K, MOTOJIMA K. A new thiazolidinedione, NC2100, which is a weak PPAR-gamma activator, exhibits potent antidiabetic effects and induces uncoupling protein 1 in white adipose tissue of KKAy obese mice. Diabetes 2000; 49: 759â€“67.
GONZALEZ-CASTEJON M, RODRIGUEZ-CASADO A. Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol Res 2011; 64: 438â€“55.
HAMASAKI Y, MURO E, MIYANJI S, YAMAMOTO S, KOBAYASHI I, SATO R, et al. Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis by honokiol in rat basophilic leukemia cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996; 110: 278â€“81.
HILL JO, WYATT HR, PETERS JC. Energy balance and obesity. Circulation 2012; 126: 126â€“32.
HIMMS-HAGEN J, MELNYK A, ZINGARETTI MC, CERESI E, BARBATELLI G, CINTI S. Multilocular fat cells in WAT of CL-316243-treated rats derive directly from white adipocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2000; 279: C670â€“81.
HOI CP, HO YP, BAUM L, CHOW AH. Neuroprotective effect of honokiol and magnolol, compounds from Magnolia officinalis, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Phytother Res 2010; 24 (10): 1538â€“42.
HO KY, TSAI CC, CHEN CP, HUANG JS, LIN CC. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis. Phytother Res 2001; 15:139â€“41.
HU Y, YOUNG AJ, EHLI EA, NOWOTNY D, DAVIES PS, DROKE EA, et al. Metformin and berberine prevent olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats. PLoS One 2014; 9: e 93310.
JEREMIC N, CHATURVEDI P, TYAGI SC. Browning of white fat: novel insight into factors, mechanisms, and therapeutics. J Cell Physiol 2017; 232: 61â€“8.
JOO IJ, KIM DH, CHOI JW, YUN JW. Proteomic analysis for antiobesity potential of capsaicin on white adipose tissue in rats fed with a high fat diet. J Proteome Res 2010; 9: 2977â€“87.
JUNG CH, CHO I, AHN J, JEON TI, HA TY. Quercetin reduces high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation in the liver by regulating lipid metabolism genes. Phytother Res 2013; 27:139â€“43.
KAMIO N, SUZUKI T, WATANABE Y, SUHARA Y, OSAKABE N. A single oral dose of flavan3-ols enhances energy expenditure by sympathetic nerve stimulation in mice. Free Radic Biol Med 2016; 91:256â€“63.
KASALA ER, BODDULURU LN, MADANA RM, V AK, GOGOI R, BARUA CC. Chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of chrysin in cancer: mechanistic perspectives. Toxicol Lett 2015; 233: 214â€“25.
KAWADA T, WATANABE T, TAKAISHI T, TANAKA T, IWAI K. Capsaicin-induced betaadrenergic action on energy metabolism in rats: influence of capsaicin on oxygen consumption, the respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1986; 183:250â€“6.
KIEFER FW. The significance of beige and brown fat in humans. Endocr Connect 2017;6:R70â€“9.
KIM SW, CHOI JH, MUKHERJEE R, HWANG KC, YUN JW. Proteomic identification of fat-browning markers in cultured white adipocytes treated with curcumin. Mol Cell Biochem 2016; 415: 51â€“66.
KIM YJ, CHOI MS, CHA BY, WOO JT, PARK YB, KIM SR, et al. Long-term supplementation of honokiol and magnolol ameliorates body fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and adipose inflammation in high-fat fed mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 2013; 57: 1988â€“98.
KUDO N, ARAI Y, SUHARA Y, ISHII T, NAKAYAMA T, OSAKABE N. A single oral administration of theaflavins increases energy expenditure and the expression. of metabolic genes. PLoS One 2015;10: e 0137809.
LAGOUGE M, ARGMANN C, GERHART-HINES Z, MEZIANE H, LERIN C, DAUSSIN F, et al. Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha. Cell 2006; 127: 1109â€“22.
LASAR D, ROSENWALD M, KIEHLMANN E, BALAZ M, TALL B, OPITZ L, et al. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma controls mature brown adipocyte inducibility through glycerol kinase. Cell Rep 2018;22 (3): 760â€“73.
LEE SG, PARKS JS, KANG HW. Quercetin, a functional compound of onion peel, remodels white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 2017; 42: 62â€“71.
LOWELL BB, FLIER JS. Brown adipose tissue, Î²3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity. Annu Rev Med 1997; 48: 307â€“16.
LONE J, CHOI JH, KIM SW, YUN JW. Curcumin induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3â€“L1 and primary white adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 2016; 27: 193â€“202.
LONE J, YUN JW. Honokiol exerts dual effects on browning and apoptosis of adipocytes. Pharmacol Rep 2017; 69: 1357â€“65.
LO KA, SUN L. Turning wat into bat: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes. Biosci Rep 2013;33.
LO YC, TENG CM, CHEN CF, CHEN CC, HONG CY. Magnolol and honokiol isolated from Magnolia officinalis protect rat heart mitochondria against lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol 1994; 47: 549â€“53.
LONG JZ, SVENSSON KJ, TSAI L, ZENG X, ROH HC, KONG X, et al. A smooth muscle-like origin for beige adipocytes. Cell Metab 2014; 19: 810â€“20.
LUDY MJ, MOORE GE, MATTES RD. The effects of capsaicin and capsiate on energy balance: critical review and meta-analyses of studies in humans. Chem Senses 2012; 37: 103â€“21.
MELE L, BIDAULT G, MENA P, CROZIER A, BRIGHENTI F, VIDAL-PUIG A, et al. Dietary (poly)phenols, brown adipose tissue activation, and energy expenditure: a narrative review. Adv Nutr 2017;8 (5): 694â€“704.
MONTANARI T, POSCIC N, COLITTI M. Factors involved in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion and in thermogenesis: a review. Obes Rev 2017; 18: 495â€“513.
MOON J, DO HJ, KIM OY, SHIN MJ. Antiobesity effects of quercetin-rich onion peel extract on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the adipogenesis in high fat-fed rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 58: 347â€“54.
NAGAO T, KOMINE Y, SOGA S, MEGURO S, HASE T, TANAKA Y, et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 122â€“9.
NEDERGAARD J, CANNON B. The browning of white adipose tissue: some burning issues. Cell Metab 2014; 20: 396â€“407.
NEDERGAARD J, CANNON B. The changed metabolic world with human brown adipose tissue: therapeutic visions. Cell Metab 2010; 11: 268â€“72.
NEDERGAARD J, BENGTSSON T, CANNON B. Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007; 293: E444â€“52.
OHYAMA K, NOGUSA Y, SHINODA K, SUZUKI K, BANNAI M, KAJIMURA S. A synergistic anti-obesity effect by a combination of capsinoids and cold temperature through promoting beige adipocyte biogenesis. Diabetes 2016; 65: 1410â€“23.
ONO K, TSUKAMOTO-YASUI M, HARA-KIMURA Y, INOUE N, NOGUSA Y, OKABE Y, et al. Intragastric administration of capsiate, a transient receptor potential channel agonist, triggers thermogenic sympathetic responses. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2011;110 (3): 789â€“98.
OSAKABE N, HOSHI J, KUDO N, SHIBATA M. The flavan-3-ol fraction of cocoa poder suppressed changes associated with early-stage metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. Life Sci 2014; 114: 51â€“6.
PAJUELO D, QUESADA H, DIAZ S, FERNANDEZ-IGLESIAS A, AROLA-ARNAL A, BLADE C, et al. Chronic dietary supplementation of proanthocyanidins corrects the mitochondrial dysfunction of brown adipose tissue caused by diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats. Br J Nutr 2012; 107: 170â€“8.
PAJUELO D, DIAZ S, QUESADA H, FERNANDEZ-IGLESIAS A, MULERO M, AROLAARNAL A, et al. Acute administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract modulates energetic metabolism in skeletal muscle and BAT mitochondria. J Agric Food Chem 2011; 59: 4279â€“87.
PARRAY HA, LONE J, PARK JP, CHOI JW, YUN JW. Magnolol promotes thermogenesis and attenuates oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nutrition 2018; 50: 82â€“90.
PERKINS MN, ROTHWELL NJ, STOCK MJ, STONE TW. Activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by the ventromedial hypothalamus. Nature 1981; 289 (5796): 401â€“2.
PETROVIC N, WALDEN TB, SHABALINA IG, TIMMONS JA, CANNON B, NEDERGAARD J. Chronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation of epididymally derived white adipocyte cultures reveals a population of thermogenically competent, UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes. J Biol Chem 2010;285 (10): 7153â€“64.
POEKES L, LANTHIER N, LECLERCQ IA. Brown adipose tissue: a potential target in the fight against obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond) 2015; 129: 933â€“49.
PRICE NL, GOMES AP, LING AJ, DUARTE FV, MARTIN-MONTALVO A, NORTH BJ, et al. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function. Cell Metab 2012; 15: 675â€“90.
PILLAI VB, SAMANT S, SUNDARESAN NR, RAGHURAMAN H, KIM G, BONNER MY, et al. Honokiol blocks and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in mice by activating mitochondrial Sirt3. Nat Commun 2015; 6: 6656.
PEREZ-VIZCAINO F, DUARTE J. Flavonols and cardiovascular disease. Mol Asp Med 2010; 31 (6): 478â€“94.
RACHID TL, SILVA-VEIGA FM, GRAUS-NUNES F, BRINGHENTI I, MANDARIM-DE-LACERDA CA, SOUZA-MELLO V. Differential actions of PPAR-Î± and PPAR-Î²/Î´ on beige adipocyte formation: a study in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese male mice. PLoS One 2018; 13 (1): e 0191365.
RIVERA L, MORON R, SANCHEZ M, ZARZUELO A, GALISTEO M. Quercetin ameliorates metabolic syndrome and improves the inflammatory status in obese Zucker rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16: 2081â€“7.
ROSEN ED, Spiegelman BM. What we talk about when we talk about fat. Cell 2014; 156: 20â€“44.
SAITO M, OKAMATSU-OGURA Y, MATSUSHITA M, WATANABE K, YONESHIRO T, NIOKOBAYASHI J, et al. High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold exposure and adiposity. Diabetes 2009; 58: 1526â€“31.
SAITO M, YONESHIRO T, MATSUSHITA M. Food Ingredients as anti-obesity agents. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2015; 26 (11): 585â€“7.
SALTIEL AR. New therapeutic approaches for the treatment of obesity. Sci Transl Med 2016; 8: 323 rv2.
SERRANO J, CASANOVA-MARTI A, GUAL A, PEREZ-VENDRELL AM, BLAY MT, TERRA X, et al. A specific dose of grape seed-derived proanthocyanidins to inhibit body weight gain limits food intake and increases energy expenditure in rats. Eur J Nutr 2017; 56: 1629â€“36.
SEO JU, KIM MH, KIM HM, JEONG HJ. Anticancer potential of magnolol for lung cancer treatment. Arch Pharm Res 2011; 34: 625â€“33.
SHARP LZ, SHINODA K, OHNO H, SCHEEL DW, TOMODA E, RUIZ L, et al. Human BAT possesses molecular signatures that resemble beige/brite cells. PLoS One 2012;7: e 49452.
SHRIME MG, BAUER SR, MCDONALD AC, CHOWDHURY NH, COLTART CE, DING EL. Flavonoid-rich cocoa consumption affects multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a meta-analysis of short-term studies. J Nutr 2011; 141:1982â€“8.
STEWART LK, SOILEAU JL, RIBNICKY D, WANG ZQ, RASKIN I, POULEV A, et al. Quercetin transiently increases energy expenditure but persistently decreases circulating markers of inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Metabolism 2008; 57 (7 Suppl. 1): S39â€“46.
SEALE P, KAJIMURA S, YANG W, CHIN S, ROHAS LM, ULDRY M, et al. Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16. Cell Metab 2007;6 (1): 38â€“54.
SCHERER PE. Adipose tissue: from lipid storage compartment to endocrine organ. Diabetes 2006;55(6):1537â€“45.
SILVESTER; Allwin Jennifa; ASEER; Kanikkai Raja, YUN; Jong Won. Dietary polyphenols and their roles in fat Browning. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 64 (2019) 1â€“12; Received 29 May 2018; received in revised form 8 September 2018; accepted 19 September 2018.
TIMMERS S, KONINGS E, BILET L, HOUTKOOPER RH, VAN DE WEIJER T, GOOSSENS GH, et al. Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans. Cell Metab 2011;14: 612â€“22.
TIRABY C, LANGIN D. Conversion from white to brown adipocytes: a strategy for the control of fat mass? Trends Endocrinol Metab 2003; 14:439â€“41.
TSAI AG, WILLIAMSON DF, GLICK HA. Direct medical cost of overweight and obesity in the USA: a quantitative systematic review. Obes Rev 2011; 12:50â€“61.
TENG CM, YU SM, CHEN CC, HUANG YL, HUANG TF. EDRF-release and Ca++-channel blockade by magnolol, an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, in rat thoracic aorta. Life Sci 1990; 47:1153â€“61.
UM JH, PARK SJ, KANG H, YANG S, FORETZ M, MCBURNEY MW, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase-deficient mice are resistant to the metabolic effects of resveratrol. Diabetes 2010; 59:554â€“63.
VAN DAM AD, KOOIJMAN S, SCHILPEROORT M, RENSEN PC, BOON MR. Regulation of brown fat by AMP-activated protein kinase. Trends Mol Med 2015; 21:571â€“9.
VAN MARKEN LICHTENBELT WD, VANHOMMERIG JW, SMULDERS NM, DROSSAERTS JM, KEMERINK GJ, BOUVY ND, et al. Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1500â€“8.
VOSSELMAN MJ, VAN MARKEN LICHTENBELT WD, SCHRAUWEN P. Energy dissipation in brown adipose tissue: from mice to men. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013; 379:43â€“50.
WALSH SE, MAILLARD JY, RUSSELL AD, CATRENICH CE, CHARBONNEAU DL, BARTOLO RG. Activity and mechanisms of action of selected biocidal agents on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. J Appl Microbiol 2003; 94:240â€“7.
WANG GX, ZHAO XY, LIN JD. The brown fat secretome: metabolic functions beyond thermogenesis. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2015;26(5):231â€“7.
WANG JP, HSU MF, RAUNG SL, CHEN CC, KUO JS, TENG CM. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of magnolol. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 1992; 346:707â€“12.
WANG S, LIANG X, YANG Q, FU X, ROGERS CJ, ZHU M, et al. Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in white fat through activation of AMPactivated protein kinase (AMPK) Î±1. Int J Obes 2015; 39: 967â€“76.
WANG S, MOUSSA NM, CHEN L, MO H, SHASTRI A, SU R, et al. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity. J Nutr Biochem 2014; 25:1â€“18.
WANG S, WANG X, YE Z, XU C, ZHANG M, RUAN B, et al. Curcumin promotes browning of white adipose tissue in a norepinephrine-dependent way. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015;466 (2):247â€“53.
WANG Q, ZHANG M, XU M, GU W, XI Y, QI L, et al. Brown adipose tissue activation is inversely related to central obesity and metabolic parameters in adult human. PLoS On 2015; 10: e 0123795.
WILSON-FRITCH L, NICOLORO S, CHOUINARD M, LAZAR MA, CHUI PC, LESZYK J, et al. Mitochondrial remodeling in adipose tissue associated with obesity and treatment with rosiglitazone. J Clin Invest 2004;114 (9): 1281â€“9.
WOLFRAM S, WANG Y, THIELECKE F. Anti-obesity effects of green tea: from bedside to bench. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006; 50:176â€“87.
WU J, COHEN P, SPIEGELMAN BM. Adaptive thermogenesis in adipocytes: is beige the new brown? Genes Dev 2013; 27:234â€“50.
WU J, BOSTROM P, SPARKS LM, YE L, CHOI JH, GIANG AH, et al. Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human. Cell 2012; 150: 366â€“76.
WU NL, FANG JY, CHEN M, WU CJ, HUANG CC, HUNG CF. Chrysin protects epidermal keratinocytes from UVA- and UVB-induced damage. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59: 8391â€“400.
XU HL, TANG W, DU GH, KOKUDO N. Targeting apoptosis pathways in cancer with magnolol and honokiol, bioactive constituents of the bark of Magnolia officinalis. Drug Discov Ther 2011; 5: 202â€“10.
YAMASHITA Y, OKABE M, NATSUME M, ASHIDA H. Prevention mechanisms of glucose intolerance and obesity by cacao liquor procyanidin extract in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Arch Biochem Biophys 2012; 527: 95â€“104.
YAMASHITA Y, WANG L, WANG L, TANAKA Y, ZHANG T, Ashida H. Oolong, black and pu-erh tea suppresses adiposity in mice via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Food Funct 2014; 5: 2420â€“9.
YONESHIRO T, AITA S, MATSUSHITA M, KAYAHARA T, KAMEYA T, KAWAI Y, et al. Recruited brown adipose tissue as an antiobesity agent in humans. J Clin Invest
; 123: 3404â€“8.
YONESHIRO T, AITA S, KAWAI Y, IWANAGA T, SAITO M. Nonpungent capsaicin analogs (capsinoids) increase energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2012; 95:845â€“50.
ZANOTTI I, DALLâ€™ASTA M, MENA P, MELE L, BRUNI R, RAY S, et al. Atheroprotective effects of (poly)phenols: a focus on cell cholesterol metabolism. Food Funct 2015; 6: 13â€“31.
ZHANG Z, CHEN J, JIANG X, WANG J, YAN X, ZHENG Y, et al. The magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance in mice. Oxidative Med Cell Longev 2014; 2014: 965954.
ZHANG Z, ZHANG H, LI B, MENG X, WANG J, ZHANG Y, et al. Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue. Nat Commun 2014; 5: 5493.
ZHAO X, LI F, SUN W, GAO L, KIM KS, KIM KT, et al. Extracts of Magnolia speciesinduced prevention of diabetic complications: a brief review. Int J Mol Sci 2016; 17.
ZHAO C, LIU ZQ. Comparison of antioxidant abilities of magnolol and honokiol to scavenge radicals and to protect DNA. Biochimie 2011; 93:1755â€“60.
ZHU W, FU A, HU J, WANG T, LUO Y, PENG M, et al. 5-Formylhonokiol exerts antiangiogenesis activity via inactivating the ERK signaling pathway. Exp Mol Med 2011; 43:146â€“52.
A revista se reserva o direito de fazer alterações nas regras originais, na ortografia e na ordem gramatical, a fim de manter o idioma de culto padrão, respeitando, no entanto, o estilo dos autores. Os artigos publicados serão de propriedade da Scientific Electronic Archives, tornando-se sua reimpressÃ£o total ou parcial, sujeitos a autorização expressa da direção da revista. A fonte original da publicação deve ser mantida. Os originais não serão devolvidos aos autores. As opiniões expressas pelos autores dos artigos são de sua exclusiva responsabilidade.
Essa revista utiliza a Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.