Intake and rumen parameters in goats fed avocado (Persea americana Mill.) pulp and oil


  • F. X. P. López Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Florestais, Agrícolas e Pecuárias do México, INIFAP, Cidade do México, México
  • M. F. Martin Programa de pós graduação, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, Campus de Pirassununga – SP
  • H. F. B. Gomes Universidade Federal de Rondonópolis-UFR, Rondonópolis - MT
  • R. O. Marques Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Campus de Botucatu – SP
  • R. V. Lourençon University Langston, Oklahoma – EUA
  • E. P. Brito Programa de pós graduação, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Campus de Botucatu – SP
  • P. R. L. Meirelles Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Campus de Botucatu – SP
  • H. C. Gonçalves Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Campus de Botucatu – SP



acetic acid, butyric acid, lipids, propionic acid, volatile fatty acids


The objective of this study was to examine the effect of supplementing goat diets with avocado pulp and oil, with respective ether extract (EE) contents of 14 and 6% (dry matter [DM] basis), on the intakes of DM and nutrients and on the rumen fermentation parameters of pH, ammonia (N-NH3), and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Non-pregnant, non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Saanen goats with an average weight of 66.6±4.6 kg were distributed into two 3 × 3 Latin squares. Concentrate DM intake (g/day) was higher in the animals that consumed the diet with pulp than in the goats fed the control and oil treatments. However, this higher concentrate intake was not sufficient to influence total diet DM intake or the intakes of crude protein, EE, mineral matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients (TDN). All evaluated rumen parameters were influenced by collection time, except N-NH3, which was influenced by the diets, with lower concentrations obtained with the pulp diet in relation to the control and oil treatments, yet within the limits considered normal to maximize DM intake and digestion. The pulp diet provided a lower butyric acid content than control at the collection times of two and eight hours after the meal, which was attributed to the proportional reduction of roughage in relation to concentrate. Diets with 6% EE do not influence intake or rumen parameters in non-pregnant, non-lactating goats. However, diets with 14% EE (DM basis) induce a reduction in the proportional intake of roughage in relation to concentrate and in the butyric acid and N-NH3 contents in the goat rumen.


ABUBAKR, A. R.; ALIMONAB, A. R.; YAAKUBA, H.; ABDULLAHBC, N. and IVANB, M. 2013. Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 12: 147-154.

ARIZA, O. J. A.; VALDEZ, F. L.; HUERTA, J. C.; CASSELLIS, M. E. R.; REYES, J. D. and ZAVALA, A. M. 2011 Effect of different extraction methods on the fatty acid profile in the avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass) oil. Revista Venezolana de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos 2:263-276. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 18 mar. 2015.

BUDIÑO, F. E. L. and CASTRO JUNIOR, F. G. 2009. Digestible energy and apparent digestibility of the crude protein and dry matter of the aquatic plants hay for growth phase swine. Ciência Animal Brasileira 10:802-807. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 11 ago. 2014.

CHILLIARD, Y.; FERLAY, A.; ROUEL, J. and LAMBERET, G. 2003. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. Journal of Dairy Science 86:1751-1770.

COSTA, R. G.; QUEIROGA, R. C. R. E. and PEREIRA, R. A. G. 2009. Influence of feed on the production on quality of goat milk. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 38:307-321.

CHRISTIE, W. W. 1982. A simple procedure for rapid transmethylation of glycerolípids and cholesteryl esters. Journal of Lipid Research 23:1072-1075. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 19 set. 2014.

CHURCH, D. C. 1993. The ruminant animal. Digestive physiology and nutrition. Long Grove, Waveland Press.

AOAC – ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16. ed. of AOAC International, Arlington, VA.

DOREAU, M. and FERLAY, A. 1995. Effect of dietary lipids on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen: a review. Livestock Production Science 43: 97-110.

FENNER, H. 1965. Method for determining total volatile bases in rumen fluid by steam distillation. Journal of Dairy Science 48: 249-251.

FIORENTINI, G.; MESSANA, J. D.; DIAN, P. H. M.; REIS, R. A.; CANESIN, R. C.; PIRES, A. V. and BERCHIELLI, T. T. 2013. Digestibility, fermentation and rumen microbiota of crossbred heifers fed diets with different soybean oil availabilities in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology 181:26-34.

HARA, A. and RADIN, N. S. 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with low-toxicity solvent. Analitical Biochemistry .90: 420-426.

HOOVER, W. H. 1986. Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion. Journal of Dairy Science 69:2755-2766.

KEARL, L. C. 1982. Nutrients requirements of ruminants in developing countries. Logan, Utah State University/International Feedstuffs Institute.

KOZLOSKI, G. V. 2011. Bioquímica dos ruminantes. 3th ed. Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul.

LANA, R. P.; RUSSELL, J. B. and AMBURGH, M. E. V. 1998. The role of pH in regulating ruminal methane and ammonia production. Journal of Animal Science 76:2190-2196.

LANA, R. P.; CAMARDELLI, M. M. L.; QUEIROZ, A. C.; RODRIGUES, M. T.; EIFERT, E. C.; MIRANDA, E. N. and ALMEIDA, I. C. C. 2005. Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 34:650-658.

LANA, R. P.; CAMARDELLI, M. M. L.; RODRIGUES, M. T.; EIFERT, E. C.; OLIVEIRA, M. V. M.; STRADIOTTI JÚNIOR, D. and OLIVEIRA, J. S. 2007. Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats: intake of nutrients and ruminal metabolism. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 36:191-197.

LENG, R. A. 1990. Factors affecting the utilization of “poor-quality†forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nutrition Research Reviews 3:277-303.

MAIA, F. J.; BRANCO, A. F.; MOURO, G. F.; CONEGLIAN, S. M.; SANTOS, G. T.; MINELLA, T. F. and MACEDO, F. A. F. 2006. Feeding vegetable oil to lactating goats: nutrient digestibility and ruminal and blood metabolism. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 35:1496-1503.

MARTINELE, I.; EIFERT, E. C.; LANA, R. P.; ARCURI, P. B. and D'AGOSTO, M. 2008. Effect of monensin and soybean oil on rumen ciliate protozoa and correlation between protozoa with ruminal fermentation and digestive parameters. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 37:1129-1136.

MARTÃNEZ-MARÃN, A. L.; PÉREZ-HERNÃNDEZ, M.; PÉREZ-ALBA, L. M.; CARRIÓN-PARDO, D. and GÓMEZ-CASTRO, A. G. 2012. Adición de aceites vegetales a la dieta de cabras lecheras: efecto sobre la digestibilidad y los resultados productivos. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 44:21-28.

MASSAFERA, G. L.; COSTA, T. M. B. and OLIVEIRA, E. D. 2010. Composição de ácidos graxos do óleo do mesocarpo e da semente de cultivares de abacate (Persea americana, Mill.) da região de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Alimentos e Nutrição Araraquara 21:325-331. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 15 mar. 2015.

MERTENS, D. R. 1987. Predicting intake and digestibility using mathematical models of ruminal function. Journal of Animal Science 64: 1548-1558.

NAGARAJA, T. G. AND TITGEMEYERT, E. C. 2007. Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: The current microbiological and nutritional outlook. Journal of Dairy Science 90:17-38.

NRC - NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th.ed. Washington, D.C.

NRC - NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th.ed. Washington, D.C.

NRC - NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. Washintgton, D.C.

PALMQUIST, D. L. AND MATTOS, W. R. S. 2006. Metabolismo de lipídeos. p. 287-309 In: Nutrição de ruminantes. Berchieli, T. T.; Pires, A. V.; Oliveira, S. G., ed. Jaboticabal, Funep.

PAZIANI, S. F. 2004. Controle de perdas na ensilagem, desempenho e digestão de nutrientes em bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo silagens de capim tanzânia. Tese (D.Sc.). Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba.

RUSSELL, J. B. and WALLACE, R. J. 1997. Energy yielding and energy consuming reactions. In: The rumen microbial ecosystem. 2th.ed. Robson, P. N. e Stewart, C. S., ed. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.

SANTOS, F. L.; LANA, R. P.; SILVA, M. T. C.; BRANDÃO, S. C. C. and VARGAS, L. H. 2001. Milk Production and Composition in Dairy Cows Receiving Diets with Different Levels and Sources of Lipids Supplementation. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 30: 1376-1380.

SANZ SAMPELAYO, M. R. S.; CHILLIARD, Y.; SCHMIDELY, P. H. and BOZA, J. 2007. Influence of type of diet on the fat constituents of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Research, 68:42-63.

SILVA, M. M. C.; RODRIGUES, M. T.; RODRIGUES, F. C. A.; BRANCO, R. H.; LEÃO, M. I.; MAGALHÃES, A. C. M. and MATOS, R. S. 2007. Effect of lipid supplementation on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in dairy goats. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 36:246-256.

SILVA, R. L. N. V.; OLIVEIRA, R. L.; CARVALHO, G. G. P.; RIBEIRO, O. L.; LEÃO, A. G.; FARIA, M. M. S. and LEDO, S. C. A. 2012. Ruminal degradability and energy balance in dairy cows on pasture supplemented with palm kernel cake. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 13:503-515.

SIMON, J. W. 2008. Avaliação microbiológica e sensorial do guacamole conservado pelo frio. Dissertação (M.SC.) Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu.

SOLLENBERGER, L. E. AND CHERNEY, D. J. R. 1995. Evaluating forage production and quality. The Science of Grassland Agriculture. Iowa State University Press.

VALADARES FILHO, S. C. AND PINA, D. S. 2006. Fermentação Ruminal. p.151-179. In: Nutrição de ruminantes. Berchieli, T. T.; Pires, A. V.; Oliveira, S. G., ed. Jaboticabal, Funep.

VAN SOEST, P. J.; ROBERTSON, J. B. AND LEWIS, B. A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74:3583-3597.

VARGAS, L.H.; LANA, R. P.; JHAM, G. N.; SANTOS, F. L.; QUEIROZ, A. C. and MANCIO, A. B. 2002. Lipids in the Ration of Dairy Cows: Ruminal Fermentation Parameters, Milk Production and Composition. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 31:522-529.




Como Citar

López, F. X. P., Martin, M. F., Gomes, H. F. B., Marques, R. O., Lourençon, R. V., Brito, E. P., Meirelles, P. R. L., & Gonçalves, H. C. (2021). Intake and rumen parameters in goats fed avocado (Persea americana Mill.) pulp and oil. Scientific Electronic Archives, 14(1), 33–41.



Agricultural Science

Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)