Antifungical and immunomodulatory activities from Caesalpinia pulcherrima extracts


  • Ricardo Sérgio da Silva Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Dayane Kelly Dias do Nascimento Santos Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Georon Ferreira de Sousa Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Marcela de Araújo Sobral Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Paulo Henrique Oliveira de Miranda Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Bruna Rodrigues de Sousa Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Pérsio Alexandre da Silva Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Norma Buarque de Gusmão Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Gláucia Manoella de Souza Lima Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Márcia Silva do Nascimento Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Iranildo José da Cruz Filho Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Túlio Diego da Silva Centro de Tecnologias Estratégicas do Nordeste
  • Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima Neto Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
  • Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de Melo Universidade Federal de Pernambuco



Anti-inflammatory profile; Antioxidant; Antimicrobial; Immunostimulation


Caesalpinia pulcherrima is a species widely used in folk medicine for various diseases such as fever, infections and mouth ulcers. In addition, scientific studies have reported medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate if organic extracts obtained from leaves of C. pulcherrima have medicinal properties. Three organic extracts were obtained (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) from the leaves collected from the Soxhlet equipment. The characterization was made by GC-MS and UPLC-MS and biological properties as antioxidant (AAT, DPPH, ABTS and lipid peroxidation radicals), antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and immunostimulant (using splenocytes of mice Balb/c) were investigated. Results showed several classes of secondary metabolites, but the ethyl acetate showed more phenols and flavonoids than the other extracts. Extracts showed good results in antioxidant tests, especially the ethyl acetate, but did not show antibacterial activity. The fungal evaluation showed high antifungal properties, especially the hexanic and the ethyl acetate against Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus terreu, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans strains. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that under 25 μg/mL are the safety doses that can be used for in vitro tests, besides that, extracts were able to induce cytokine stimulation. These results show that the ethyl acetate extract was the best formulation found in this study to be used against fungal infections, for antioxidant proposes and for promote immunostimulation.


AGUIAR, L.M.S., NASCIMENTO, D.K.D. RAMOS, B.A., MOURA, M.C., COELHO, L.C.B.B., CORREIA, M.T.S. et al.. Antioxidant , antimicrobial and immunostimulant properties of saline extract from Caesalpinia pulcherrima ( L .) Swartz ( Fabaceae ) leaves. Indian journal of traditional knowledge 18: 281–289, 2019.

AKDIS, M., AAB, A., ALTUNBULAKLI, C., AZKUR, K., COSTA, R.A., CRAMERI, R. et al. Fundamentals of allergy and immunology Interleukins ( from IL-1 to IL-38 ), interferons , transforming growth factor b , and TNF- a : Receptors , functions , and roles in diseases. Fundam. allergy Immunol 984–1010, 2016.

ALDHOLMI, M., MARCHAND, P., OURLIAC-GARNIER, I., PAPE, P., GANESAN, A. A Decade of Antifungal Leads from Natural Products. Pharmaceutical 12: 1-21, 2010.

ASADI-SAMANI, M., RAFIEIAN-KOPAEI, M., AZIMI, N. Gundelia: A systematic review of Medicinal and Molecular. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 16: 1238–1247, 2013.

BOUARAB-CHIBANE, L., FORQUET, V., LANTÉRI, P., CLÉMENT, Y. Antibacterial Properties of Polyphenols : Characterization and QSAR ( Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship ) Models. Frontiers in microbiology 10: 1-23, 2019.

CATALDI, T.R.I., MARGIOTTA, G., FIORE, A., BUFO, S.A., WILEY, J. Ionic Content in Plant Extracts Determined by Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection. Phytochemical analysis 183, 176–183, 2003.

CHIANG, L.C., CHIANG, W., LIU, M.C., LIN, C.C. In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids. J. Antimicrob. Chemother 52: 194–198, 2003.

CHOUHAN, S., SHARMA, K., GULERIA, S. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils — Present Status and Future Perspectives. Medicines 4:1–21, 2017.

CHU, W.M. Tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Lett 328: 222–225, 2013.

CRUZ-FILHO, I.J., BARROS, B.R.S., AGUIAR, L.M.S., NAVARRO, C.D.C., RUAS, J.S., LORENA, V.M.B. et al. Lignins isolated from Prickly pear cladodes of the species Opuntia fícus- indica ( Linnaeus ) Miller and Opuntia cochenillifera ( Linnaeus ) Miller induces mice splenocytes activation , proliferation and cytokines production. Int. J. Biol. Macromol 123:1331-1339, 2018.

FIGUEIREDO, J.R., SÁBER, M.L. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos etanólicos de Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Rev. Eletronica Acervo Saude 8: 853–860, 2016.

HEWAGE, K., NADEEKA, I., HERATH, M., CHO, J., KIM, A., KIM, H. et al. Differential modulation of immune response and cytokine pro fi les of Sargassum horneri ethanol extract in murine spleen with or without Concanavalin A stimulation. Biomed. Pharmacother 110: 930–942, 2019.

JAYAPRAKASHA, G.K., SINGH, R.P., SAKARIAH, K.K. Antioxidant activity of grape seed ( Vitis vinifera ) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chem 73: 285–290, 2001.

KAK, G., RAZA, M., TIWARI, B.K. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): Exploring its implications in infectious diseases. BioMol Concepts 1:64–79, 2018.

KIM, S., WOO, E., LEE, D.G. Synergistic Antifungal Activity of Isoquercitrin : Apoptosis and Membrane Permeabilization Related to Reactive Oxygen Species in Candida albicans. IUBMB Life 283–292, 2019.

LI, H., WONG, C., CHENG, K., CHEN, F. Antioxidant properties in vitro and total phenolic contents in methanol extracts from medicinal plants. LTW food science and technology 41:385–390, 2008.

LI, Z.J., DAWUTI, M.L.G., DOU, Q., MA, Y., LIU, H.G., AIBAI, S. Antifungal Activity of Gallic Acid In Vitro and In Vivo. Phytoteraphy Res 1–6, 2017.

MALEKI, S.J., CRESPO, J.F., CABANILLAS, B. Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids. Food Chem 30:125124, 2019.

MATIZ, G.E., FRANCO, L.A., RINCON, J. Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz). Salud UIS 43: 281–287, 2011.

MELO, C.M.L., MELO, H., CORREIA, M.T.S., COELHO, L.C.B.B., SILVA, M.B., PEREIRA, V.R.A. Mitogenic Response and Cytokine Production Induced by Cramoll 1 , 4 Lectin in Splenocytes of Inoculated Mice. Basic Immunol 73: 112–121, 2011.

MOTERIYA, P., CHANDA, S. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Caesalpinia pulcherrima flower extract and assessment of their in vitro antimicrobial , antioxidant , cytotoxic , and genotoxic activities. Artif. Cells, Nanomedicine, Biotechnol 1555–1566, 2017.

NOHYNEK, L., MEIER, C., KA, M. Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries. Journal of applied microbiology 90: 494-507, 2001.

PHUSE, S.S., KHAN, Z.H. In-vitro study of TLC profile and antioxidant activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima extracts. The pharma inoovation journal 7:328–332, 2018.

PIETTA, P. Flavonoids as Antioxidants. Journal of natural products 63: 1035–1042, 2000.

PORTA, L., LIMA, N.M., SANTOS, V.N.C., PORTA, A. Quimiodiversidade , Bioatividade e Quimiossistemática do Gênero Inga (FABACEAE): Uma Breve Revisão. Rev. Virtual Quim 10:459–473, 2018.

PROCHÁZKOVÁ, D., BOUŠOVÁ, I., WILHELMOVÁ, N. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of flavonoids. Fitoterapia 82:513–523, 2011.

RAGASA, C.Y., GANZON, J., HOFILENA, J., TAMBOONG, B., RIDEOUT, J.A. A New Furanoid Diterpene from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Chem. Pharm. Bull 51:1208–1210, 2003.

ROMERO-CORREA, M.T., VILLA-GOMEZ, R., CASTRO-MERCADO, E., GARCÍA-PINEDA, E. The avocado defense compound phenol-2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) is induced by arachidonic acid and acts via the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide production by pathogens. Physiological and molecular plant pathology 87: 32-41, 2014.

SANTOS, M.L.O., SIQUEIRA, W.N., SÁ, L.J.F., SILVA, L.R.S., CABRAL, D.L.V. Estudo do efeito radioprotetor do extrato metanólico de Caesalpinia pyramidalis sobre células embrionárias de Biomphalaria glabatra. Sci. Plena 9:1–7. 2013.

SHARMA, V., RAJANI, G.P. Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn . for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. Indian journal of pharmacology 43:168–172, 2011.

SILVA, F.D.B., SALES, M.A.G., SÁ, O.R.M., SANTANA, G.M., DEUS, M.S.M., SOUSA, J.M.C., et al. Potencial citotóxico , genotóxico e citoprotetor de extratos aquosos de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul ., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart . e Caesalpinia pulcherrima Sw . Rev. Bras. biociências 101–109, 2015.

SOUSA, G.F., SANTOS, D.K.D.N., SILVA, R.S., BARROS, B.R.S.B., CRUZ-FILHO, I.J., RAMOS, B.A., SILVA, T.D., SILVA, P.A., LIMA-NETO, R.G. GUSMÃO, N.B., NASCIMENTO, M.S., MELO, C.M.L. Evaluation of cytotoxic , immunomodulatory effects , antimicrobial activities and phytochemical constituents from various extracts of Passiflora edulis F . flavicarpa ( Passifloraceae ). Nat. Prod. Res 1–5, 2020.

TORRE, G.L.T.D., AROLLADO, E.C., ATIENZA, A.A., MANALO, R.A.M., et al. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Identification of Bioactive Compounds of Crude Methanol Extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima ( L .) Swartz. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences 79:113–123, 2017.

VIVEK, M.N.C, SWAMY, S.H.C., MANASA, M., PALLAVI, S., KAMBAR, Y., ASHA, M.M., CHAITHRA, M. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activity of leaf and flower extract of Caesalpinia Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activity of leaf and flower extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima , Delonix regia and Peltaphorum ferrugineum 64–71, 2013.

WOISKY, R.G., SALATINO, A. Analysis of propolis : some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control Analysis of propolis : some parameters and procedures for chemical quality control. Journal of apicultural research 37: 99-105, 1997.



Como Citar

Silva, R. S. da ., Santos, D. K. D. do N. ., Sousa, G. F. de ., Sobral, M. de A., Miranda, P. H. O. de ., Sousa, B. R. de ., Silva, P. A. da ., Gusmão, N. B. de ., Lima, G. M. de S. ., Nascimento, M. S. do, Cruz Filho, I. J. da, Silva, T. D. da ., Lima Neto, R. G. de ., & Melo, C. M. L. de . (2021). Antifungical and immunomodulatory activities from Caesalpinia pulcherrima extracts. Scientific Electronic Archives, 14(9).

Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)