Intervertebral disc disease - Literature review


  • A. C. Rosa Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
  • A. Kataoka Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso



discopathy. spinal cord compression, prognosis, treatment


The present work aims to report and describe the Intervertebral Disc Disease, a discopathy which is responsible for the largest spinal cord compression rate, through the extrusion of the pulpous nucleus (Hansen type I) or protrusion of the fibrous ring into the vertebral canal (Hansen type II). It is important a complete anamnesis, physical and complementary examinations for diagnosis. When diagnosed in less than 48 hours after the beginning of the nervous symptomatology, the prognosis may be favorable. The treatment consists of removing the contents that are compressing the marrow by surgical intervention, this conduct is recommended especially when the spinal cord compression caused by disc herniation is graduated in III, IV and V, or conservative treatment in I or II graduations, by movement restriction associated with medications.


ARIAS, B.V.B; NISHIOKA, C.M.; GARCIA, C.O.; REIA, A.Z.; JUNIOR, D. B.; MARCAPASSO, R.A. Avaliação dos resultados clínicos após cirurgia descompressiva em cães com doença de disco intervertebral. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Belo Horizonte, v.59, n.6, p.1445-1450, 2007.

BAGLEY, R.S.; WHEELER, S.J. Doenças do sistema nervoso. In: DUNN, J.K. Tratado de medicina interna de pequenos animais. São Paulo: Roca. Cap.42, p.657-689, 2001.

BAHR ARIAS, M. V.; SEVERO, M. S.; TUDURY, E. A. Trauma medular em cães e gatos: revisão da fisiopatogenia e do tratamento médico. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 28, n. 1, p. 115-134, 2007.

BERGKNUT, N.; SMOLDERS, L. A.; GRINWIS, G. C. M.; HAGMAN, R.; AGERSTEDT, A. S.; HAZEWINKEL, H. A. W.; TRYFONIDOU, M. A.; MEIJ, B. P. Intervertebral disc degeneration in the dog. Part 1: anatomy and physiology of the intervertebral disc and characteristics of intervertebral disc degeneration. The Veterinary Journal, London, v. 195, n. 3, p. 282-291, 2013.

BRAUND, K G. Moléstia do disco intervertebral. In: BOJRAB, J. M. (Ed) Mecanismos da moléstia na cirurgia dos pequenos animais. 2. Ed. São Paulo: Manole. Cap. 129, p. 1104-1116, 1996.

BRISSON, B. A. Intervertebral Disc Disease in Dogs. Veterinary Clinics os North America: Small Animal Practice, Maryland Heights, v. 40, n 5, p. 829-858, 2010.

BUDRAS, K.D., MCCARTHY, P.H., FRICKE, W. RICHTER,R. Anatomy of the Dog.Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG. 5 Ed, 2007. 218

COATES, J. P. Management of disc associated wobbler syndrome with a parcial slot fenestration and position screw technique. Journal of Small Animal Practice, Philadelphia, v.39, p.131-133, 2000.

COSTA, C. R., Disco intervertebral- bases para o diagnóstico e tratamento da doença. Revista Nosso Clínico, v. 20, n. março/abril, p.18-26, 2001.

COSTA R.C., PARENT J., DOBSON H., HOLMBERG D.; PARTLOW G. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography in 18 Doberman Pinscher dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy. Veterinary. Radiology e Ultrasound. 47(6):523-531, 2006.

De LAHUNTA, A; GLASS, E. Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. 3 Ed. Missouri: Elsevier, 2009. 552 p.

DENNY, R.H; BUTTERWORTH, J.S. Cirurgia ortopédica em cães e gatos. 4° ed., São Paulo: Editora Roca, p. 193-205, 2006.

DEWEY, C, W. Myelopathies: Disorders of the Spinal Cord. In: DEWEY, C. W. (Ed) A Pratical Guide to Canine and Feline Neurology, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 9, p. 277-336, 2003.

DYCE, K. M; SACK, W. D. WENSING, C. J. G. Tratado de anatomia veterinária, 2.Ed., Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 1997. 663 p.

EVANS, H. &; deLAHUNTA, A. Guia para dissecação do cão, 5. Ed., Rio de janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2001. 206 p.

FLUEHMANN G., DOHERR M.G. & JUGGY A. Canine neurological diseases in a referral hospital population between 1989 and 2000 in Switzerland. J. Small Animal. Practice. v. 47, p.582-587, 2006.

FORTERRE, F.; GORGAS, D.; DICKOMEIT, M.; JAGGY, A.; LANG, J.; SPRENG, D. Incidence of spinal compressive lesions in chondrodystrophic dogs with abnormal recovery after hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar disc disease: a prospective magnetic resonance imaging study. Veterinary Surgery, Davis, v. 39, n. 2, p. 165-72, 2010.

FOSSUM, T. W. Cirurgia de pequenos animais. 2ed. São Paulo: Rocca, 2005. 1087 p.

FOSSUM, T.W. Cirurgia da Coluna Toracolombar. In: Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais. Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Elsevier, 3 Ed., cap. 39, p.1460-1492, 2008

FOSSUM, T. W. Small Animal Surgery. 3 ed. Missouri: Elsevier, 2007. 1610 p.

GRIFFIN, J.F.T., LEVINE, J., KERWIN, S., COLE, R. Canine thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Compendium Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, E1-E14. 2009.

HAYASHI, E.M. Estudo clínico da eficácia da acupuntura no tratamento da discopatia intervertebral toráco-lombar em cães. 105f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Medicina Veterinária) Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, SP. 2006

JAGGY, A. PLATT, S.R. Small Animal Neurology. Na. Illustrade Text. Hannover: Schutersche, (Ed), 2010. Cap. 01, 580 p.

JEFFREY, A. N. D. Handbook of small animal spinal surgery. London: Saunders, 1995. 236p.

JOAQUIM, J.G.F.; BRONDANI, J.T.; LUNA, S.P.L.; TORELLI, S.R.; RAHAL, C.R.; FREITAS, F.P. Comparison of decompressive surgery, electroacupuncture, and decompressive surgery followed by electroacupuncture for the treatment of dogs with intervertebral disk disease with long-standing severe neurologic deficits. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Illinois, v.236, p.1225 - 1229, 2010.

LECOUTEUR, R. A.; CHILD, G. Moléstias da medula espinhal. In: ETTINGER, S. J. (Ed.) Tratado de Medicina Interna Veterinária. São Paulo: Manole. v. 2, cap. 62, p.655-736, 1992.

LECOUTEUR, R..; CHILD, G. Moléstias da medula espinhal. In: ETTINGER, S. J. (Ed.) Tratado de Medicina Interna Veterinária. 4. Ed. São Paulo. 1997. v. 1, p.890-980, 1997.

LECOUTEUR, R. A.; GRANDY, J. L. Doenças da medula espinhal. In: ETTINGER, S. J.; FElDMAN, E. C. (Eds.) Tratado de Medicina Intern Veterinária – Doenças do cão e do gato. 5. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan. cap. 196, p. 644-694, 2004.

LEVINE J.M., LEVINE G.J., JOHNSON S.I., KERWIN S.C., HETTLICH B.F. & FOSGATE G.T. Evaluation of the success of medical management for presumptive thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation in dogs. Veterinary Surgery. v. 36:482-491, 2007.

LORENZ, M.D., COATES, J.R., KENT, M. Handbook of Veterinary Neurology. Elsevier Saunders. 5 Ed. 560 p, 2011.

LORENZ, M. D., KORNEGAY, J. N. Neurologia veterinária. 4ª ed. Manole: São Paulo, p. 8-27, 2006.

MACIAS, C.; McKEE, W. M.; MAY, C.; INNES, J. F. Thoracolumbar disk disease in large dogs: a study of 99 cases. Journal Small Animal Practice, Ontario, v. 43, n. 10, p. 439-446, 2002.

MARIONI-HENRY, K. Feline Spinal Cord Diseases. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Pratice, Maryland Heights, v.40, n. 5, p. 983-1010, 2010.

MAYHEW, P.D.; McLEAR, R.C.; ZIEMER, L.S.; CULP, W.T.N.; RUSSELL, K.N.; SHOFER, F.S.; KAPATKIN, A.S.; SMITH, G.K. Risk factors for recurrence of clinical signs associated with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation in dogs: 229 cases (1994-2000). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, v.225, n.8, p.1231-1236, 2004.

MCCARTNEY W. Comparison of recovery time and complications rates Between a modified slanted slot and the standart ventral slot for the treatment of cervical disc disease in 20 dogs. J. Small Animal Practice v.48: 498-501, 2007.

MEIJ, B.P.; BERGKNUT. Degeerative Lumbosacral Stenosis in Dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Maruland Heights, v. 40, n. 5, p. 983-1009, 2010.

MIKAIL, S; PEDRO, C. R. Fisioterapia veterinária, São Paulo: Manole. Cap.13, p. 96-102, 2006.

MORAES, P.C.; CRIVELLENTI, L.Z. Neurologia e Distúrbios Musculoesqueléticos. In: CRIVELLENTI, L.Z.; CRIVELLENTI, S.B. Casos de Rotina em Medicina Veterinária de Pequenos Animais. São Paulo, Ed. MedVet. Cap.10. p. 305-354. 2012.

MUIR, P. et al. Comparison of hemilaminectomy and dorsal laminectomy for a thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusio n in dachshunds. Journal of Small Animal Practice, v. 36, n. 8, p. 360-367, 1995.

NELSON, R.W.; COUTO, C.G. Distúrbios da Medula Espinal. In: Medicina Interna de Pequenos Animais. Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Elsevier, 4a edição, cap.70, p.1067-1093, 2010

NELSON, R. W; COUTO, C. G. Medicina interna de pequenos animais, 2. ed., Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2001.

OLBY, N.J.; DYCE. J.; HOULTON, J.E.F. Correlation of plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings hith surgical findings in thoracolumbar disc disease. Journal of Small Animal Pratice, Gloucestershire, v. 35, n. 7, p.345-350, 1994.

OLBY, N. J. et al. Long-term functional outcome of dogs with severe spinal cord injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 222, p. 762-769, 2003.

OLBY N.J., HALLING K.B. & GLICK TR. Rehabilitation for the neurologic patient. Vet Clin North America. Small Animal Practice. v.35, p.1389–1409, 2005.

OLBY, N.; JEFFERY, N. Pathogenesis and physiology of central nervous system disease and injury. In: TOBIAS, K.M.; JOHNSTON, S.A. Veterinary surgery. Small animal. Missouri: Elsevier Saunders. v. 1, p. 374-387, 2012.

OLBY, N. The Pathogenesis and treatament of acute spinal cord injuries in dogs. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice, Philadelphia, v. 40, n. 5, p.791-807, 2010.

PADILHA FILHO, J.G., SELMI, A. Discopatia cervical no cão. Tratamento cirúrgico através da fenestração ventral. Estudo retrospectivo (1986-1997). Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v. 29, n. 1, p. 75-78, 1999.

PARENT, J. Clinical Approach and Lesion Localization in Patients with Spinal Diseases. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, Maryland Heights, v. 40, n. 5, p. 733-753, 2010.

PELLEGRINO, F.; SURANITTI, A.; GARIBALDI, L. (Ed). Síndromes neurológicas em cães e gatos. Rio de Janeiro: Interbook,. 2003, 378 p.

SANTINI, G.; MAZZANTI, A. BECKMANN, D. V.; ROSMARINI, O. S.; PELIZZARI, C.; POLIDORO, D.; BAUMHARDT, R. Doença o disco intervertebral cervical em cães: 28 casos (2003-2008). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro, v. 30, n. 8, p. 659-664, 2010.

SANTOS, R.O.; BECKMANN, D.V.; AIELLO, G. et al. Recuperação funcional de cães paraplégicos com doença do disco intervertebral toracolombar sem percepção à dor profunda submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico: 15 casos (2006-2010). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 32 (3): 243-246, 2012.

SCHULMAN, A. J.; LIPPINCOTT, C. L. Cauda equina syndrome in dogs. Compendium on continuing Education for the practicing Veterinarian, v.10, p. 835-844, 1990.

SHARP N.J.H. & WHEELER S.J. Small Animal Spinal Disorders: Diagnosis and surgery. 2 Ed. Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia, p.121-159, 2005.

TAYLOR, S.M.; Distúrbios Neuromusculares. In: NELSON, R.W.; COUTO, C.G. Medicina Interna de Pequenos Animais. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier. p. 945-978, 2006.

THOMAS, W. B.; DEWEY, C. W. Realização do exame do sistema nervosa. In: DEWEY, C. W. Neurologia em case e gatos. 1. Ed. São Paulo: Roca. cap. 2, p. 19-34, 2006.

TILLEY, L.P.; SMIITH JUNIOR, F.W.K. Consulta Veterinária em 5 minutos: espécies canina e felina. 2. Ed. São Paulo: Manole, 2003. p. 1432.

TOOMBS, J.P. e BAUER, M. S. Afecção do disco intervertebral. In: SLATTER, D. Manual de cirurgia de pequenos animais. 2 Ed., v. 1. São Paulo: Manole, p. 1286-1305. 1998.

TOOMBS J.P. Cervical intervertebral disk disease in dogs. Compend. Cont. Educ. Pract. Vet. v.14, p.1477-1488, 1992.

TOOMBS, J. P.; WATERS, D. J. Intervertebral disc. In: SLATTER, D. Textbooks of small animal surgery. 3 Ed. Philadelphia: Sauders. Cap. 80, p. 1993-1209, 2003.

TOOMBS J.P. & WATERS D.J. 2007. Intervertebral disc disease. In: Slatter D. (Ed.), Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. 3 Ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia. p.1193- 1208, 2007.

WHEELER, S. J,; SHARP, N. J. H., Diagnostico e tratamento das afecções espinhais do cão e do gato. São Paulo: Manole, 1999, 224p.

WHEELER, S. J,; SHARP, N. J. H., Small animal spinal disorders. Diagnosis and surgery. 2 Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2005, 772 p.

WIDMER, W.R; THRALL, D.E Doença do Disco Intervertebral em cães e gatos. Mielografia e Doença Medular I: THRALL, D.E. Diagnóstico de Radiologia Veterinária. Rio de Jneiro. ED. Elsevier, 5 Ed, cap.12, p.194-239, 2010.




Como Citar

Rosa, A. C., & Kataoka, A. (2019). Intervertebral disc disease - Literature review. Scientific Electronic Archives, 12(3), 127–136.

Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)

> >>