Ir para o conteúdo principal Ir para o menu de navegação principal Ir para o rodapé
Ciências Biológicas
Publicado: 2022-04-01

Hydraulic structure and wood density from root to the crown in in three native Brazilian tree species

Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio Mesquita Filho”
Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais
Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais
Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Red de Ecología Funcional
Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais
hydraulic bottlenecks, hydraulic properties, wood axial variation, Brazilian woods


We study anatomical and hydraulic features of vessels and wood density, and correlations between them, from root to crown in 40-year-old Balfourodendron riedelianum, Cariniana legalis and Handroanthus vellosoi trees. We didn't observe gradual tapering of vessel diameter along the tree axis, but hydraulic bottlenecks from stem top to the crown base were noted. Vessel density, did not vary from root to stem, but it was higher in the crown. Vessel features promotes changes in potential hydraulic conductivity, and these changes vary among species, highlighting that the interaction between vessel density and vessel diameter affected potential hydraulic conductivity. Higher values of wood density at trees bases demonstrated an investment in mechanical sustentation. Our results showed a certain synergy between anatomical features and hydraulic conductivity that promotes anatomical adjustments required to meet the hydraulic and mechanical requirements of these tropical trees.


  1. BAAS, P., EWERS, F.W., DAVIS, S.D., WHEELER, E.A. Evolution of xylem physiology. In: HEWSLEY, A.R., POOLE, I. (Eds.) The evolution of plant physiology. London: Elsevier, 2004. p. 273-295.
  2. BADEL, E., EWERS, F.W., COCHARD, H. TELEWSKI, F.W. Acclimation of mechanical and hydraulic functions in trees: impact of the thigmomorphogenetic process. Frontiers in Plant Science. Vol. 6, 266, 2015.
  3. DOMEC, J.C., WARREN, J.M., MEINZER, F.C., LACHENBRUCH, B. Safety factors for xylem failure by implosion and air-seeding within roots, trunks and branches of young and old conifer trees. IAWA Journal. Vol. 30, p. 101-120, 2009.
  4. FAN, Z.X., ZHANG, S.B., HAO, G.Y., FERRY SLIK, J.W., CAO, K.F. 2012. Hydraulic conductivity traits predict growth rates and adult stature of 40 Asian tropical tree species better than wood density. Journal of Ecology. Vol. 100, p. 732-741, 2012.
  5. GARTNER, B.L., MEINZER, F. Structure function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage. In: N.M. HOLBROOK, M.A. ZWIENNIECKI (eds). Vascular transport in plants. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005. p. 307-332.
  6. GEROLAMO, C.S., ANGYALOSSY, V. Wood anatomy and conductivity in lianas, shrubs and trees of Bignoniaceae. IAWA Journal. Vol. 38, p. 412-432, 2017.
  7. GLASS, S., ZELINKA, S.L. Moisture Relations and Physical Properties of Wood. In: ROSS R (ed) Wood Handbook, Centennial Edition. FPL-GTR-190. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 2010. p. 4-1/4-19.
  8. IAWA (International Association of Wood Anatomists, NL). 1989. IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bulletin, Vol. 10, p. 219-332, 1989.
  9. KOTOWSKA, M.M., HERTEL, D., RAJAB, Y.A., BARUS, H., SCHULDT, B. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth. Frontiers in Plant Science. Vol. 6, p. 1-16, 2015.
  10. LONGUI, E.L., RAJPUT, K.S., MELO, A.C.G., ALVES, L.A., NASCIMENTO, C.B. Root to branch wood anatomical variation and its influence on hydraulic conductivity in five Brazilian Cerrado species. Bosque, Vol. 38, p. 183-193, 2017.
  11. MCCULLOH, K.A., SPERRY, J.S., ADLER, F.R. Murray’s law and the hydraulic vs mechanical functioning of wood. Functional Ecology. Vol. 18, p. 931-938, 2004.
  12. OLSON, M.E., ROSELL JA. Vessel diameter–stem diameter scaling across woody angiosperms and the ecological causes of xylem vessel diameter variation. New Phytologist. Vol. 197, p. 1204-1213, 2013.
  13. PETIT, G., ANFODILLO, T., MENCUCCINI, M. Tapering of xylem conduits and hydraulic limitations in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) trees. New Phytologist. Vol. 177, p. 653-664, 2008.
  14. PETIT, G., ANFODILLO, T. Plant physiology in theory and practice: an analysis of the WBE model for vascular plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 259, p. 1-4, 2009.
  15. PETIT, G., PFAUTSCH, S., ANFODILLO, T., ADAMS, M.A. The challenge of tree height in Eucalyptus regnans: when xylem tapering overcomes hydraulic resistance. New Phytologist. Vol. 187, p. 1146-1153, 2010.
  16. PFAUTSCH, S., ASPINWALL, M.J., DRAKE, J.E., CHACON-DORIA, L., LANGELAAN, R., TISSUE, D.T., TJOELKER, M.G., LENS, F. Traits and trade-offs in whole-tree hydraulic architecture along the vertical axis of Eucalyptus grandis. Annals of Botany. Vol. 121, p. 129-141, 2018.
  17. POORTER, L., MCDONALD, I., ALARCÓN, A., FICHTLER, E., LICONA, J., PEÑA-CLAROS, M., STERCK, F. The importance of wood traits and hydraulic conductance for the performance and life history strategies of 42 rainforest tree species. New Phytologist. Vol. 185, p. 481-492, 2010.
  18. PRATT, R.B., JACOBSEN, A.L., EWERS, F.W., DAVIS, S.D. Relationships among xylem transport, biomechanics and storage in stems and roots of nine Rhamnaceae species of the California chaparral. New Phytologist, Vol. 174, p. 787-798, 2007.
  19. PSARAS, G.K., SOFRONIOU, I. Stem and root wood anatomy of the shrub Phlomis fruticose (Labiatae). IAWA Journal. Vol. 25, p. 71-77, 2004.
  20. ROSELL, JA., OLSON, ME., ANFODILLO, T. Scaling of xylem vessel diameter with plant size: causes, predictions, and outstanding questions. Current Forestry Reports. Vol. 3, p. 46-59. 2017.
  21. SARMIENTO, G., GOLDSTEIN, G., MEINZER, R. Adaptive strategies of woody species in neotropical savannas. Biological Reviews. Vol. 60, p. 315-355, 1985.
  22. SCHULDT B., LEUSCHNER, C.H., BROCK, N., HORN, V. Changes in wood density, wood anatomy and hydraulic properties of the xylem along the root-to-shoot flow path in tropical rainforest trees. Tree Physiology. Vol. 33, p. 161-174, 2013.
  23. STERCK, F.J., ZWEIFEL, R., SASS-KLAASSEN, U., CHOWDHURY, Q. Persisting soil drought reduces leaf specific conductivity in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens). Tree Physiology. Vol. 28, p. 529-536, 2008.
  24. TYREE, M.T., DAVIS, S.D., COCHARD, H. Biophysical perspectives of xylem evolution: Is there a trade off of hydraulic efficiency for vulnerability to dysfunction. IAWA Journal. Vol. 15, p. 335-60, 1994.
  25. TYREE, M.T., ZIMMERMANN, M.H. Xylem structure and the ascent of sap. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media, 2002. 283 p.
  26. WEST, G.B., BROWN, J.H., ENQUIST, B.J. A general model for the structure and allometry of plant vascular systems. Nature. Vol. 400, p. 664-667, 1999.
  27. ZANNE, A.E., WESTOBY, M., FALSTER, D.S., ACKERLY, D.D., LOARIE, S.R., ARNOLD, S.J., COOMES, D.A. Angiosperm wood structure: global patterns in vessel anatomy and their relation to wood density and potential conductivity. American Journal of Botany. Vol. 92, p. 207-215, 2010.
  28. ZIMMERMANN, M.H. Xylem structure and the ascent of sap. New York: Springer, 1983. 143 p.

Como Citar

Lopes, O. P. ., Zannato, B. ., Barbosa, J. de A. ., Angeles, G. ., & Longui, E. L. (2022). Hydraulic structure and wood density from root to the crown in in three native Brazilian tree species. Scientific Electronic Archives, 15(4).