Ir para o conteúdo principal Ir para o menu de navegação principal Ir para o rodapé
Publicado: 2020-03-31

Nutritional and food aspects related to polioencephalomalacy in ruminant

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Centro Universitário (Unifasipe)
Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
Centro Universitário (Unifasipe)
Ruminants diseases Neuropathology Cerebrocortical necrosis


Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) is a nervous disease with neuronal necrosis. He previously believed that this condition was related to thiamine deficiency, but studies suggest that it can be determined by different nutritional and dietary factors. In this context, objectified to perform a literature review on the main causes of polioencephalomalacia caused by nutritional and dietary factors as well as the appropriate treatment and prevention in ruminants. Therefore, PEM disease can be caused by the classic thiamine deficiency, lead poisoning, sulfur and salt associated with drinking water deprivation. To prevent PEM, avoid contaminated material in pastures (avoid lead and sulfur), invasive plants (avoid thiaminases) and nutritional management of dietary thiamine concentrations and sulfur levels in water and diet. For treatment it is recommended to identify the source that causes the disease, deprivation of contaminated material and use of food management techniques, drugs needed to restore the metabolic parameters.


  1. ANGELOS, S.M.; SMITH, B.P.; GEORGE, L.W.; HOUSE J.K., VAN METRE, D.C.; FECTEAU G.; THACKER, V.C.; ANGELOS, J.A. 1999. Treatment of hypernatremia in an acidotic neonatal calf. J. Am Vet. Med. Assoc., 214:1364-1367, 1999.
  2. BARROS, C.S.L.; DRIEMEIER, D.; DUTRA, I.S.; LEMOS, R.A.A. 2006. Doenças do Sistema Nervoso de Bovinos no Brasil. Agnes, São Paulo, p.166 – 171, 2006.
  3. BULGIN, M.S.; LINCOLN, S.D.; MATHER, G. 1996. Elemental sulfur toxicosis in a flock of sheep. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 208:1063-1065, 1996.
  4. CEBRA, C.K.; CEBRA, M.L. 2004. Altered mentation caused by polioencephalomalacia, hypernatremia, and lead poisoning. Vet. Clin. Food Anim., 20:287-302, 2004.
  5. CHRISTIAN, R.G.; TRYPHONAS, L. 1971. Lead poisoning in cattle: Brain lesions and hematologic changes. Am. J. Vet. Res., 32:203-216, 1971.
  6. COLODEL; E.M.; LORETTI, A.P.; CRUZ, C.E.F.; DRIEMEIER, D. 1998. Polioencefalomalacia em caprinos associada à ingestão dos frutos de Hovenia dulcis (“uva-do-japãoâ€). Boletim no. 25, Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico. Gráfica Universitária, Pelotas, p.35-42, 1998.
  7. CUMMINGS, B.A.; CALDWELL, D.R.; GOULD, D.H.; HAMAR, D.W. 1995. Identity and interactions of rumen microbes associated with dietary sulfateinduced polioencephalomalacia in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res., 56:1384-1389, 1995.
  8. DONAWICK, W.J. 1966. Chronic lead poisoning in a cow. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 148:685-693, 1966.
  9. DREYFUS, P.M. 1965. The regional distribution of transketolase in the normal and the thiamine deficient nervous system. J. Neuropathol. Exp.Neurol., 24:119-129, 1965.
  10. DRIEMEIER, D.; BARROS, C.S.L. 2007. Intoxicação por chumbo, p.55-59. In: RIET-CORREA F., SCHILD A.L., LEMOS R.A.A. & BORGES J.R.J. (Eds), Doenças de Ruminantes e Equídeos. 3ª ed. Vol.2. Pallotti, Santa Maria, RS, 2007.
  11. EDWIN, E.E.; JACKMAN, R. 1973. Ruminal thiaminase and tissue thiamine in cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet. Rec., 92:640-641, 1973.
  12. FERREIRA, F.A.; COELHO, H.E.; BASTOS, J.E.D. 1986. Polioencefalomalácia em bovinos no estado de Minas Gerais. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., 38:693-700, 1986.
  13. GONÇALVES, R.C.; VIANA, L.; SEQUEIRA, J.L.; BANDARRA, E.P.; CHIACCHIO, S.B.; KUCHEMBUCK, M.R.G. 2001. Aspectos clínicos, anatomopatológicos e epidemiológicos da polioencefalomalácia em bovinos, na região de Botucatu, SP. Veterinária Notícias 7:53-57, 2001.
  14. GOONERATNE, S.R.; OLKOWSKI, A.A.; CHRISTENSEN, D.A. 1989a. Sulfurinduced polioencephalomalacia in sheep: Some biochemical changes. Can. Vet. J., 53:462, 1989a.
  15. COPPOCK, R.W.; WAGNER, W.C.; REYNOLDS, J.D.; VOGEL, R.S.; GELBERG, H.B.; FLORENCE, L.Z.; WOLFF, W.A. 1991. Evaluation of edetate and thiamine for treatment of experimentally induced environmental lead poisoning in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res., 52:1860-1865, 1991.
  16. GOULD, D.H. 2000. Update on sulfur-related polioencephalomalacia. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract., 16:481-496, 2000.
  17. GOULD D.H. 1998. Polioencephalomalacia. J. Anim. Sci., 76:309-314, 1998.
  18. GOULD D.H.; CUMMINGS, B.A; HAMAR, D.W. 1997. In vivo indicators of pathologic ruminal sulfide production in steers with diet-induced polioencephalomalacia. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 9:72-76, 1997.
  19. HAMLEN, H.; CLARK, E.; JANZEN, E. 1993. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation. Can. Vet. J., 34:153-158, 1993.
  20. HARRIES, N. 1987. Polioencephalomalacia in feedlot cattle drinking water high in sodium sulfate. Can. Vet. J., 28:717, 1987.
  21. HAVEN, T.R.; CALDWELL, D.R.; JENSEN, R. 1983. Role of predominant rumen bacteria in the cause of polioencephalomalacia (cerebrocortical necrosis) in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res., 44:1451-1455, 1983.
  22. HILL, F.I.; EBBETT, P.C. 1997. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle in New Zealand fed chou moellier (Brassica oleracea). N. Z. Vet. J., 45:37-39, 1997.
  23. JACKMAN, R.; EDWIN, E.E. 1983. Cerebral autofluorescence and thiaminase deficiency in cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet. Rec., 112:548-550, 1983.
  24. JEFFREY, M.; DUFF, J.P.; HIGGINS, R.J.; SIMPSON, V.R.; JACKMAN, R.; JONES, T.O.; MECHIE, S.C.; LIVERSEY, C.T. 1994. Polioencephalomalacia associated with the ingestion of ammonium sulphate by sheep and cattle. Vet. Rec., 134:343-348, 1994.
  25. JENSEN, R.; GRINER, L.A. ADAMS, O.R. 1956. Polioencephalomalacia of cattle and sheep. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 129:311-321, 1956.
  26. KANEKO, J.J.; HARVEY, J.W.; BRUSS, M.L. 1997. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th ed. Academic Press, New York. 932p., 1997.
  27. LEMOS, R.A.A. 2005. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso de bovinos de corte das regiões Centro-Oestee Sudeste do Brasil. Tese de Doutorado, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP. 150p., 2005.
  28. LEMOS, R.A.A.; RIET-CORREA, F. 2007. Polioencefalomalacia, p.658-670. In: Riet-Correa F., Schild A.L., Lemos R.A.A. & Borges J.R.J. (Eds), Doenças de Ruminantes e Equídeos. 3ª ed. Palotti, Santa Maria. 694p., 2007.
  29. LIMA, E.F.; RIET-CORREA, F.; TABOSA, I.M.; DANTAS, A.F.M.; MEDEIROS, J.M.; SUCUPIRA JÚNIOR G. 2005. Polioencefalomalácia em caprinos e ovinos na região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 25:9-14., 2005.
  30. LINDLEY, W.H. 1977. Water deprivation in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 171:439-440, 1977.
  31. LINKLATER, K.A.; DYSON, D.A.; MORGAN, K.T. 1977. Faecal thiaminase in clinically normal sheep associated with outbreaks of polioencephalomalacia. Res. Vet. Sci., 22:308-312, 1977.
  32. LOEW, F.M.; DUNLOP, R.H. 1972. Induction of thiamine inadequacy and polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep with amprolium. Am. J. Vet. Res., 33:2195-2205, 1972.
  33. LONERAGAN, G.H.; GOULD, D.H. 2002. Polioencephalomalacia (cerebrocortical necrosis), p.920-926. In: Smith B.P. (Ed.), Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd ed. Mosby, St Louis. 1735p, 2002.
  34. LOW, J.C.; SCOTT, P.R.; HOWIE, F.; LEWIS, M.; FITZSIMONS, J.; SPENCE, J.A. 1996. Sulphur-induced polioencephalomalacia in lambs. Vet. Rec., 138:327-329, 1996.
  35. MARKSON, L.M.; LEWIS, G.; TERLECKI, S.; EDWIN, E.E.; FORD, J.E. 1972. The aetiology of cerebrocortical necrosis: The effects of administering antimetabolites of thiamine to preruminant calves. Brit. Vet. J., 128:488- 499, 1972.
  36. MAXIE, M.G.; YOUSSEF, S. 2007. Nervous system, p.281-457. In: Maxie M.G. (Ed.), Jubb, Kennedy & Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol.1. 5th ed. Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh, 2007.
  37. MCALLISTER, M.M.; GOULD, D.H.; RAISBECK, M.F.; CUMMINGS, B.A.; LONERAGAN, G.H. 1997. Evaluation of ruminal sulfide concentrations and seasonal outbreaks of polioencephalomalacia in beef cattle in a feedlot. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 211:1275-1279, 1997.
  38. MELLA, C.M.; PEREZ-OLIVA, O.; LOEW, F.M. 1976. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. Can. J. Comp. Med., 40:104-110, 1976.
  39. MEYER P. 1989. Thiaminase activities and thiamine content of Pteridium aquilinum, Equisetum ramosissimum, Malva parviflora, Pennisetum clandestinum and Medicago sativa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 56:145-146, 1989.
  40. MORGAN, K.T.; LAWSON, G.H.K. 1974. Thiaminase type 1-producing bacilli and ovine polioencephalomalacia. Vet. Rec., 95:361-363, 1974.
  41. MORO, L.; NOGUEIRA, R.H.G.; CARVALHO, A.U.; MARQUES, D.C. 1994. Relato de três casos de polioencefalomalacia em bovinos. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zoot., 46:409-416, 1994.
  42. NAKAZATO, L.; LEMOS, R.A.A.; RIET-CORREA, F. 2000. Polioencefalomalácia em bovinos nos estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 20:119-125, 2000.
  43. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle.7th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, p.60-61, 1996.
  44. NILES, G.A.; MORGAN, S.E.; EDWARDS, W.C. 2000. Sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia in stocker calves. Vet. Human Toxicol., 42:290-291, 2000.
  45. OLKOWSKI, A.A. 1997. Neurotoxicity and secondary metabolic problems associated with low to moderate levels of exposure to excess dietary sulphur in ruminants: A review. Vet. Human Toxicol., 39:355-360, 1997.
  46. RADOSTITS, O.M.; GAY, C.C.; HINCHCLIFF, K.W.; CONSTABLE, P.D. 2007. Veterinary Medicine: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats. 10th ed. Saunders Elsevier, Edinburgh, p.2006-2012, 2007.
  47. RAISBECK, M.F. 1982. Is polioencephalomalacia associated with highsulfate diets? J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 180:1303-1305, 1982.
  48. RAMMELL, C.G.; HILL, J.H. 1986. A review of thiamine deficiency and its diagnosis, especially in ruminants. N. Z. Vet. J., 34:202-204, 1986.
  49. RAMOS, J.J.; FERRER, L.M.; GARCÃA, L.; FERNÃNDEZ, A.; LOSTE, A. 2005. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostate pigweed. Can. Vet. J., 46:59-61, 2005.
  50. RIET-CORREA, F.; RIVERO, R.; DUTRA, F.; LEMOS, R.A.A.; EASTON, C. 2007. Polioencephalomalacia. 35ª Jornadas Uruguayas de Buiatría, p.191-198, 2007.
  51. RIET-CORREA, G.; DUARTE, M.D.; BARBOSA, J.D.; OLIVEIRA, C.M.C.; CERQUEIRA, V.D.; BRITO, M.F.; RIET-CORREA, F. 2006. Meningoencefalite e polioencefalomalácia causada por Herpesvírus bovino-5 no Estado do Pará. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 26:44-46, 2006.
  52. RIET-CORREA, F.; RIET-CORREA, G.; SCHILD, A.L. 2002. Importância do exa me clínico para o diagnóstico das enfermidades do sistema nervoso em ruminantes e eqüídeos. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 22:161-168, 2006.
  53. SANT’ANA, F.J.F.; RISSI, D.R.; LUCENA, R.B.; LEMOS, R.A.A.; NOGUEIRA, A.P.A.; BARROS, C.S.L. 2009a. Polioencefalomalácia em bovinos: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e distribuição das lesões no encéfalo. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 29:487-497, 2009a.
  54. SANTOS, P.C.G.; GUIMARÃES, J.G.P.; RODER, P.R.; Polioencefalomalácia em bovinos. Revista científica eletrônica de medicina veterinária periodicidade semestral. Ed. 5 julho de 2005.
  55. SHREEVE, J.E.; EDWIN, E.E. 1974. Thiaminase-producing strains of Clostridium sporogenes associated with outbreaks of cerebrocortical necrosis. Vet. Rec., 94:330, 1974.
  56. SUMMERS, B.A., CUMMINGS, J.F.; DE LAHUNTA, A. 1995. Veterinary Neuropathology. Mosby, St Louis, p.277-280, 1995.
  57. TRAVERSO, S.D.; COLODEL, E.M.; LORETTI, A.P.; SEITZ, A.L.; CORREA, A.M.; KRAUSPENHAR, C.; DRIEMEIER, D. 2001. Polioencefalomalácia em bovinos leiteiros no Rio Grande do Sul suplementados com enxofre. 10º Enapave, Pirassununga, SP, p.72. (Resumo).
  58. VIEIRA, A.C.S.; AFONSO, J.A.B.; TOKARNIA, C.H.; COSTA, N.A.; MENDONÇA, C.L.; SOUZA, M.I. 2007. Estudo epidemiológico, clínico e patológico em ruminantes com polioencefalomalácia no agreste meridional de Pernambuco. Revta Bras. Med. Vet., 29:65-68, 2007.

Como Citar

Assis, J. R., Assis, A. C. M., Nunes, D., & Carlos, A. B. (2020). Nutritional and food aspects related to polioencephalomalacy in ruminant. Scientific Electronic Archives, 13(4), 96–104.