Ir para o conteúdo principal Ir para o menu de navegação principal Ir para o rodapé
Ciências Agrárias
Publicado: 2017-04-15

Effect of stress on prolactin release in nulliparous and primiparous rats

Centro Universitário da Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
Centro Universitário da Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos
Acute stress Prolactin Primiparous and Nulliparous.


Reproductive experience modifies seric concentration of prolactin. In adition, stress is known to modulate this neurohormone release. Taken together, these facts are suggestive of a possible interaction. The objective of the present study was to analyze the influence of acute and prolonged stress on prolactin secretion in nulliparous and experienced rats. Wistar nulliparous (n= 12) and primiparous (n= 12) female rats were submitted to a chronic jugular vein catheterization surgery. Both groups were submitted to acute stress induced by formalin (4%) subcutaneous injection or restrained stress in a PVC tube. One hour stress sessions were performed during proestrous morning. Blood samples were obtained in 2, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after acute or during restrained stress. Seric prolactin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed an increased prolactin release at 10 and 15 minutes in primiparous compared to nulliparous during restrained stress (Repeated Measures Anova, F5,15= 9,65; p< 0,001). No differences between groups were observed in prolactin release after formalin injection. In conclusion, we can suggest that prolactin secretory stress response can be modulated by reproductive experience although further studies are necessary to elucidate oestrus cycle and different contribution of stress types.


  1. BANCROFT, J. The endocrinology of sexual arousal. Endocrinology, v. 186, n. 3, p. 411-427, sep. 2005.
  2. BÃNKY, Z.; NAGY, G. M.; HALÃSZ, B.; Analysis of pituitary prolactin and adrenocortical response to ether, formalin or restraint in lactating rats: rise in corticosterone, but no increase in plasma prolactin levels after exposure to stress. Neuroendocrinology. v. 59, p. 63-71, 1994.
  3. BEN-JONATHAN, N. Dopamine and prolactin – an imperfect duo in circadian rhytimicity. Endocrinology, n. 137, p. 3619-3620, 1996.
  4. BEN-JONATHAN, N.; ARBOGAST, L. A.; HYDE, J. F. Neuroendocrine regulation of prolactin release. Progress in Neurobiology, n. 33, p. 399-477, 1979.
  5. BOCHINI, J. C. Efeito da adrenalectomia sobre a secreção de prolactina em ratas nulíparas e primíparas. Laboratório de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina
  6. Veterinária, UNIFEOB, SP. Fapesp Proc. 03/01887-7, 2004.
  7. BRIDGES, R. S.; DIBIASE, R.; LOUNDES, D. D.; DOHERTY, P. Prolactin stimulation of maternal behavior in female rats. Science, n. 227, p. 782-784, 1985.
  8. BRIDGES, R. S.; FELICIO, L. F.; PELLERIN, L. J.; STUER, A. M.; MANN, P. E. Prior parity reduces post-coital diurnal and nocturnal prolactin surges in rats. Life Science, n. 53, p. 439-445, 1993.
  9. BYRNES, E.M.; BRIDGES, R.S. Reproductive experience alters anxiety-like behavior in the
  10. female rat. Hormones and Behavior. n. 50, p. 70-76, 2006.
  11. CRUZ-CASALLAS, P. E.; NASELLO, A. G.; HUCKE, E. E. T. S.; FELICIO, L. F. Dual modulation of male sexual behavior in rats by central prolactin: relationship with in vivo striatal dopaminergic activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, v. 24, p. 681-693, 1999.
  12. CUNNINGHAM, J. G.; Tratado de Fisiologia Veterinária. 3 ed. Rio de Janeiro:Guanabara Koogan, 2004.
  13. DAVE, J. R.; ANDERSON, S. M.; SAVIOLAKIS, G. A.; MOUGEY, E. H.; BAUMAN, R. A.; KANT, G. J. Chronic sustained stress increases levels of anterior pituitary prolactin mRNA. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. n. 67, p. 423-421, 2000.
  14. DONADIO, M.V.F.; SAGAE, S.C.; FRANCI, C.R.; ANSELMO-FRANCI, J.A.; LUCION, A.B.; SANVITTO, G.L. Angiotensin II receptors in the arcuate nucleus mediate stress-induced reduction of prolactin secretion in steroid-primed ovariectomizad and lactating rats. Brain Research. v. 1006, p. 59-65, 2004.
  15. FRANÇOLIN-SILVA, A. L.; ALMEIDA, S. S. The interaction of housing condition and acute immobilization stress on the elevated plus-maze behaviors of protein-malnourished rats. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. v. 37, n. 7, p. 1035-1042, jul. 2004.
  16. FRASÃO, R.; Envolvimento dos núcleos da rafe nas respostas adaptativas a alterações de volume sanguíneo em ratos, estudo através da expressão de Fos. Tese (Mestrado), Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de São Paulo, 2004.
  17. FUJIWARA, K; MARRUYAMA, M; USUI, K; SAKAI, T; MATSUMOTO, H; HINUMA, S; KITADA, C; INOVE, K; Appearance of prolactin-releasing peptide-producing neurons in the area postrema of adrenalectomized rats. Neuroscience Letters, v. 338, n. 2, p. 127-130, 2003.
  18. GRATTAN, D.R. The actions of prolactin in the brain during pregnancy and lactation. Progress in Brain Research. v. 133, p. 153-171, 2001.
  19. GUYTON, A. C.; Tratado de Fisiologia Médica. 8 ed. Rio de Janeiro:Guanabara Koogan, 1992.
  20. HAFEZ, E. S. E. Reprodução Animal. 4 ed. Zaragoza: Acríbia, 1988.
  21. HORVÃTH, K. M.; BÃNKY, Z; TÓTH, B. T.; HALÃSZ, B.; NAGY, G. M.; Effect of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment on prolactin secretion of lactating rats. Brain Research Bulletin. v. 56, n. 6, p. 589-592, 2001.
  22. HUCKE, E. E. T. S.; CRUZ-CASALLAS, P. E., FLORIO, J. C.; FELICIO, L. F. Reproductive experience reduces striatal dopaminergic responses in freely moving female rats. Neuroreport. v. 9, n. 16, p. 3589-3593, 1998.
  23. HUCKE, E. E. T. S.; CRUZ-CASALLAS, P. E.; SIDER, L. H.; FELICIO, L. F. Reproductive experience modulates dopamine-related behavioral responses. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. v. 68, n. 3, p. 575-582, 2001.
  24. KINSLEY, C. H.; BRIDGES, R. S. Parity-associated reduction in behavioral sensitivity to opiates. Biology of Reproduction. n. 39, p. 270-278, 1988.
  25. KLENEROVA, V.; SIDA, P.; HYNIE, S.; JURCOVICOVA, J. Rat Strain Differences in Responses of Plasma Prolactin and PRL mRNA Expression After Acute Amphetamine Treatment or Restraint Stress. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. v. 21, n. 1, 2001.
  26. LEITE, C. B.; Efeito do estresse agudo e prolongado sobre a secreção de prolactina em ratas nulíparas e primíparas. Laboratório de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, UNIFEOB, SP. Fapesp: Proc. 04/15197-5R, 2007.
  27. MANN, P. E.; BRIDGES, R. S. Neural and endocrine sensitivities to opioids decline as a function of multiparity in the rat. Brain Research. n. 580, p. 241-248, 1992.
  28. MATT, K. S.;SOARES, M. J.; TALAMANTES, F.; BARTKE, A. Effects of handling end ether anesthesia on serum prolactin levels in the golden hamster. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. n. 173, p. 463-466, 1977.
  29. MERA, T.; FUJIHARA, H; KAWASAKI, M; HASHIMOTO, H; SAITO, T.; SHIBATA, M.; SAITO, J; OKA, T.; TSUIJI, S; ONAKA, T.; UETA, Y; Prolactin-releasing peptide is a potent mediator of stress responses in the brain through the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Neuroscience. v. 141, p. 1069-1086, 2006.
  30. MUSEY, V. C., COLLINS, D. C.; MUSEY, P. I.; MARTINO-SALTZMAN, D.; PREEDY, J. R. K. Long-term effect of a first pregnancy on the secretion of prolactin. New England Journal of Medicin. n. 316, p. 229-234, 1987b.
  31. MUSEY, V. C.; COLLINS, D. C.; BROGAN, D. R.; SANTOS, V. R.; MUSEY, P. I., MARTINO-SALTZMAN, D.; PREEDY, J. R. K. Long term effects of the first pregnancy on the hormonal environment: estrogens and androgens. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. n. 64, p. 111-118, 1987a.
  32. NEILL, J. D. Effect of stress on serum prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels during the estrous cycle of rat. Endocrinology. n. 87, p. 1192-1197, 1970.
  33. NOEL, G. L.; SUH, H. K.; STONE, J. G.; FRANTZ, A. G. Human prolactin and growth hormone release during surgery and other conditions of stress. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. n. 35, p. 840-851, 1972.
  34. PALKOVITS, M.; BAFFI, J. S.; PACAK, K. The role of ascending neuronal pathways in stress-induced release of noradrenaline in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats. Journal of Neuroendocrinology. v. 11, p. 529-539, 1999.
  35. RANDALL, D.; BURGGREN, W.; FRENCH, K. Fisiologia Animal – Modificações e Adaptações. 4° ed., Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara, 1997.
  36. SILVA, E. C.; CASTRO, L. Regulação da secreção de prolactina. Antunes-Rodrigues, J.; Moreira, A. C.; Elias, L. L. K.; Castro, M. (eds.). Guanabara Koogan: Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, p. 341-354, 2005.
  37. SMITH, M. S.; FREEMAN, M. E.; NEILL, J. D. The control of progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle and early pseudopregnancy in the rat: prolactin, gonadotropin and steroid levels associated with rescue of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy. Endocrinology. v. 96, n. 1, p. 219-226, jan. 1975.
  38. SPUCH, C.; DIZ-CHAVES, Y.; PÉREZ-TILVE, D.; ALVAREZ-CRESPO, M.; MALLO, F. Prolactin-releasing Peptide (PrRP) increases prolactin responses to TRH in vitro and in vivo. Endocrine. v. 31, n. 2, p. 119-124, apr., 2007.
  39. SZAWKA, R. E.; ANSELMO-FRANCI, J. A. A secondary surge of prolactin on the estrus afternoon. Life Science. v. 9, n. 75, p. 911-922, jul., 2004.
  40. TAYLOR, B. K.; AKANA, S. F.; PETERSON, M. A.; DALLMAN, M. F.; BASBAUM, A. I. Pituitary-adrenocortical responses to persistent noxious stimuli in the awake rat:Endogenous corticosterone does not reduce nociception in the formalin test. Endocrinology. v. 139, p. 2407-2413, 1998
  41. TIMMERMAN, W.; POELMAN, R. T.; WESTERINK, B. H. C.; SCHUILING, G. A. Semicircadian rhythm of dopamine release in the mediobasal hypothalamus in awake rats during pseudopregnancy: evidence that a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analogue stimulates dopamine release and thereby inhibits prolactin secretion. Neuroendocrinology. n. 62, p. 434-443, 1995.
  42. TORNER, L.; TOSCHI, N.; NAVA, G.; CLAPP, C.; NEUMANN, D. Increased hypothalamic experession of prolactin in lactation: involvement in behavioral and neuroendocrine stress responses. European Journal of Neuroscience. v. 15, p. 1381-1389, 2002.

Como Citar

Alvisi, R. D., Berber, R. C. A., Dullius., J. L., & Hucke, E. E. T. S. (2017). Effect of stress on prolactin release in nulliparous and primiparous rats. Scientific Electronic Archives, 10(2), 29–37.